Relationship Between Phenolic Content Determined by LC/MS/MS and Antioxidant Capacity and Enzyme Inhibition of Cyclotrichium niveum L

Chem Biodivers. 2023 Apr;20(4):e202300027. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.202300027. Epub 2023 Mar 20.


Cyclotrichium niveum (Boiss.) Manden & Scheng belonging to the Lamiaceae family, which is an endemic species in the eastern Anatolian region of Turkey, has an important place in terms of ethno-botany. The phytochemical composition of the plant, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (which hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine), inhibition of paraoxonase for antiatherosclerotic activity (hPON 1) (which detoxifies organophosphates), and antioxidant capacity were all investigated in this study. Phytochemical content was determined by LC/MS/MS, and enzyme inhibition and antioxidant capacity studies were determined by spectrophotometer. Antioxidant capacity of C. niveum extracts (methanol, hexane, and water) was determined by applying ABTS⋅+ , DPPH⋅, FRAP, and CUPRAC methods. Both the water and the methanol extracts of the C. niveum exhibited significant inhibition on the AChE (IC50 value for methanol and water extract 0.114±0.14 mg/mL (R2:0.997) and 0.178±0.12 mg/mL (R2 : 0.994), respectively). In contrast, the methanol and water extracts of the C. niveum did not exhibit the inhibition effect on hPON 1. The highest activity for ABTS⋅+ was 66.53 % in the water extract, and DPPH⋅ was 55.03 % in the methanol extract. In the metal-reducing power assay, the absorbance was 0.168±0.04 for FRAP water extract and 0.621±0.01 for CUPRAC methanol extract. According to LC/MS/MS analyses, hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid, acetohydroxamic acid and luteolin determined in the plant extract. As a consequence, C. niveum which has antioxidant, anti-atherogenic and anti-neurodegenerative properties has the potential to be used as a natural medication instead of synthetic drugs used in Alzheimer's patients.

Keywords: Cyclotrichium niveum; LC/MS/MS; acetylcholinesterase; antioxidant; paraoxonase.

MeSH terms

  • Acetylcholinesterase
  • Antioxidants* / chemistry
  • Enzyme Inhibitors* / chemistry
  • Enzyme Inhibitors* / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Lamiaceae* / chemistry
  • Lamiaceae* / enzymology
  • Methanol
  • Phenols / chemistry
  • Phytochemicals
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Water


  • Acetylcholinesterase
  • Antioxidants
  • Methanol
  • Phenols
  • Phytochemicals
  • Plant Extracts
  • Water
  • Enzyme Inhibitors

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