Impact of evidence-based bundles on ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention: A systematic review

J Infect Dev Ctries. 2023 Feb 28;17(2):194-201. doi: 10.3855/jidc.12202.


Introduction: This review aimed at investigating the impact of bundle components on the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in adults and the elderly.

Methodology: The databases consulted were PubMed, EBSCO, and Scielo. The terms Bundle and Pneumonia were searched in combination. The original articles were selected in Spanish and English; published between January 2008 and December 2017. After eliminating the duplicate papers, an analysis of the titles and the abstracts was performed in order to select the assessed articles. A total of 18 articles were included in this review that were evaluated according to the following criteria: research reference, country of data collection, type of study, characteristics of the studied patients, analysis and intervention performed, bundle items investigated and their results, and research outcome.

Results: Four bundle items were presented in all the investigated papers. 61% of those works were considered from seven to eight bundle items. Daily evaluation of sedation interruption and daily assessment for verifying extubation condition, head-of-bed elevation at 30 degrees, cuff pressure monitoring, coagulation prophylaxis, and oral hygiene were the most reported bundle items. One study described the increased mortality of patients under mechanical ventilation when omitted the bundle items of oral hygiene and stress ulcer prophylaxis. Head-of-bed elevation at 30 degrees was the item reported in 100% of the studied papers.

Conclusions: Existing research demonstrated that VAP reduction occurred when bundle items were performed for adults and the elderly. Four works showed the relevance of team education as a central approach to the event reduction related to the ventilator.

Keywords: Elderly health; head-of-bed elevation; intensive care unit; mechanical ventilation; oral hygiene.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Humans
  • Intensive Care Units
  • Peptic Ulcer*
  • Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated* / prevention & control
  • Respiration, Artificial
  • Ventilators, Mechanical