In many real-world applications, such as those based on electronic health records, prognostic prediction of patient survival is based on heterogeneous sets of clinical laboratory measurements. To address the trade-off between the predictive accuracy of a prognostic model and the costs related to its clinical implementation, we propose an optimized L0-pseudonorm approach to learn sparse solutions in multivariable regression. The model sparsity is maintained by restricting the number of nonzero coefficients in the model with a cardinality constraint, which makes the optimization problem NP-hard. In addition, we generalize the cardinality constraint for grouped feature selection, which makes it possible to identify key sets of predictors that may be measured together in a kit in clinical practice. We demonstrate the operation of our cardinality constraint-based feature subset selection method, named OSCAR, in the context of prognostic prediction of prostate cancer patients, where it enables one to determine the key explanatory predictors at different levels of model sparsity. We further explore how the model sparsity affects the model accuracy and implementation cost. Lastly, we demonstrate generalization of the presented methodology to high-dimensional transcriptomics data.
Copyright: © 2023 Halkola et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.