Novel Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Immune Thrombocytopenia

Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Feb 23;24(5):4438. doi: 10.3390/ijms24054438.


Lower-than-normal platelet counts are a hallmark of the acquired autoimmune illness known as immune thrombocytopenia, which can affect both adults and children. Immune thrombocytopenia patients' care has evolved significantly in recent years, but the disease's diagnosis has not, and it is still only clinically achievable with the elimination of other causes of thrombocytopenia. The lack of a valid biomarker or gold-standard diagnostic test, despite ongoing efforts to find one, adds to the high rate of disease misdiagnosis. However, in recent years, several studies have helped to elucidate a number of features of the disease's etiology, highlighting how the platelet loss is not only caused by an increase in peripheral platelet destruction but also involves a number of humoral and cellular immune system effectors. This made it possible to identify the role of immune-activating substances such cytokines and chemokines, complement, non-coding genetic material, the microbiome, and gene mutations. Furthermore, platelet and megakaryocyte immaturity indices have been emphasized as new disease markers, and prognostic signs and responses to particular types of therapy have been suggested. Our review's goal was to compile information from the literature on novel immune thrombocytopenia biomarkers, markers that will help us improve the management of these patients.

Keywords: autoimmune disease; biomarker; diagnosis; immune system; immune thrombocytopenia; oxidative stress; platelet; prognosis; response to treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Platelets
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Megakaryocytes
  • Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic*
  • Thrombocytopenia*


  • Biomarkers

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.