Proenkephalin as a Novel Prognostic Marker in Heart Failure Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Mar 3;24(5):4887. doi: 10.3390/ijms24054887.


Over the last several years, the use of biomarkers in the diagnosis of patients with heart failure (HF) has skyrocketed. Natriuretic peptides are currently the most widely used biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of individuals with HF. Proenkephalin (PENK) activates delta-opioid receptors in cardiac tissue, resulting in a decreased myocardial contractility and heart rate. However, the goal of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the association between the PENK level at the time of admission and prognosis in patients with HF, such as all-cause mortality, rehospitalization, and decreasing renal function. High PENK levels have been associated with a worsened prognosis in patients with HF.

Keywords: heart failure; mortality; proenkephalin; prognostic marker; rehospitalization.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Heart Failure*
  • Humans
  • Prognosis


  • proenkephalin
  • Biomarkers

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.