Influence of High-Pressure Homogenization on the Physicochemical Properties and Betalain Pigments of Red Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Juice

Molecules. 2023 Feb 21;28(5):2018. doi: 10.3390/molecules28052018.


High-pressure homogenization (HPH) is considered an innovative and modern method of processing and preserving liquid and semi-liquid foods. The aim of this research was to examine the impact of HPH processing on the content of betalain pigments and physicochemical properties of beetroot juice. Combinations of the following HPH parameters were tested: the pressure used (50, 100, 140 MPa), the number of cycles (1 and 3) and the applied cooling or no cooling. The physicochemical analysis of the obtained beetroot juices was based on the determination of the extract, acidity, turbidity, viscosity and color values. Use of higher pressures and a greater number of cycles reduces the turbidity (NTU) of the juice. Moreover, in order to maintain the highest possible extract content and a slight color change of the beetroot juice, it was crucial to perform sample cooling after the HPH process. The quantitative and qualitative profiles of betalains have been also determined in the juices. In terms of the content of betacyanins and betaxanthins, the highest values were found in untreated juice at 75.3 mg and 24.8 mg per 100 mL, respectively. The high-pressure homogenization process resulted in a decrease in the content of betacyanins in the range of 8.5-20.2% and of betaxanthins in the range of 6.5-15.0%, depending on the parameters used. Studies have shown that that the number of cycles was irrelevant, but an increase in pressure from 50 MPa to 100 or 140 MPa had a negative effect on pigment content. Additionally, juice cooling significantly limits the degradation of betalains in beetroot juice.

Keywords: HPLC-DAD; PCA analysis; beetroot juice; betalains; betanin; color; high-pressure homogenization; juice turbidity.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / analysis
  • Beta vulgaris* / chemistry
  • Betacyanins / analysis
  • Betalains* / chemistry
  • Betaxanthins / analysis
  • Plant Extracts / metabolism
  • Vegetables / chemistry


  • Betalains
  • Betacyanins
  • Betaxanthins
  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.