Biofunctionalization and Applications of Polymeric Nanofibers in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

Polymers (Basel). 2023 Feb 27;15(5):1202. doi: 10.3390/polym15051202.


The limited ability of most human tissues to regenerate has necessitated the interventions namely autograft and allograft, both of which carry the limitations of its own. An alternative to such interventions could be the capability to regenerate the tissue in vivo.Regeneration of tissue using the innate capacity of the cells to regenerate is studied under the discipline of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM). Besides the cells and growth-controlling bioactives, scaffolds play the central role in TERM which is analogous to the role performed by extracellular matrix (ECM) in the vivo. Mimicking the structure of ECM at the nanoscale is one of the critical attributes demonstrated by nanofibers. This unique feature and its customizable structure to befit different types of tissues make nanofibers a competent candidate for tissue engineering. This review discusses broad range of natural and synthetic biodegradable polymers employed to construct nanofibers as well as biofunctionalization of polymers to improve cellular interaction and tissue integration. Amongst the diverse ways to fabricate nanofibers, electrospinning has been discussed in detail along with advances in this technique. Review also presents a discourse on application of nanofibers for a range of tissues, namely neural, vascular, cartilage, bone, dermal and cardiac.

Keywords: electrospinning; nanofiber; regenerative medicine; scaffold; tissue engineering.

Publication types

  • Review

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.