Purpose: To determine differences in long-term kidney and bladder outcomes in boys with posterior urethral valves (PUV) managed by a primary valve ablation or primary urinary diversion.
Materials and methods: A systematic search was performed in March 2021. Comparative studies were evaluated according to Cochrane collaboration recommendations. Assessed measures included kidney outcomes (chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease, kidney function) and bladder outcomes. Odds ratios (OR) and mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were extrapolated from available data for quantitative synthesis. Random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed according to study design, and potential covariates were assessed with subgroup analysis. The systematic review was prospectively registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021243967).
Results: Thirty unique studies describing 1547 boys with PUV were included in this synthesis. Overall effect estimates demonstrate that patients undergoing primary diversion have significantly increased odds of developing renal insufficiency [OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.44, 0.80; p < 0.001]. However, when adjusting for baseline kidney function between intervention groups, there was no significant difference in long term kidney outcomes [p = 0.09, 0.35], or the development of bladder dysfunction or requiring clean-intermittent catheterization with primary ablation rather than diversion [OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.49, 1.59; p = 0.68].
Conclusions: Current low-quality evidence suggests that medium-term kidney outcomes in children are similar between primary ablation and primary diversion after adjusting for baseline kidney function, while bladder outcomes are highly heterogenous. Further research with covariate control is warranted to investigate sources of heterogeneity.
Level of evidence: Level III.
Keywords: Bladder compliance; Chronic kidney disease; Kidney function; Posterior urethral valve.
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