Diagnosis and management of lymphoblastic lymphoma in children, adolescents and young adults

Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2023 Mar;36(1):101449. doi: 10.1016/j.beha.2023.101449. Epub 2023 Feb 16.


Lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) is the second most common type of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) in children, adolescents, and young adults (CAYA), accounting for 25-35% of all cases. T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) comprises 70-80% of cases, while precursor B-lymphoblastic lymphoma (pB-LBL) makes up the remaining 20-25% of cases. Event-free and overall survival (EFS and OS) for paediatric LBL patients both exceed 80% with current therapies. Treatment regimens, especially in T-LBL with large mediastinal tumours, are complex with significant toxicity and long-term complications. Though prognosis overall is good for T-LBL and pB-LBL with upfront therapy, outcomes for patients with relapsed or refractory (r/r) disease remain dismal. Here, we review new understanding about the pathogenesis and biology of LBL, recent clinical results and future directions for therapy, and remaining obstacles to improve outcomes while reducing toxicity.

Keywords: Adolescents; CAR-T cells; Children; Immunotherapy; Lymphoblastic lymphoma; Novel agents; Precursor B cell; Precursor T cell.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Lymphoma, B-Cell*
  • Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin*
  • Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma* / therapy
  • Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma* / therapy
  • Prognosis
  • Young Adult