A comparative study to measure the sagittal condylar inclination using mechanical articulator, virtual articulator and jaw tracking device

J Adv Prosthodont. 2023 Feb;15(1):11-21. doi: 10.4047/jap.2023.15.1.11. Epub 2023 Feb 23.


Purpose: To compare the sagittal condylar inclination (SCI) in dentate individuals measured by the different methods with mechanical articulator (MA), virtual articulator (VA), and a jaw tracking device (JTD) system.

Materials and methods: A total of 22 healthy dentate participants were enrolled in this study. For MA workflow, the SCI was obtained by a semi-adjustable articulator with protrusive interocclusal records. The SCI was also set on a VA by aligning intraoral scan (IOS) with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and facial scan (FS), respectively. These virtual workflows were conducted in a dental design software, namely VAIOS-CBCT and VAIOS-FS. Meanwhile, a JTD system was also utilized to perform the measurement. Intraclass correlation was used to assess the repeatability within workflows. The bilateral SCI values were compared by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test for each workflow, and Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc p-value Bonferroni correction were used to compare the differences among four workflows. The agreement of VAIOS-CBCT, VAIOS-FS, and JTD compared with MA was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis.

Results: Intraclass correlation of the SCI revealed a high degree of repeatability for each workflow. There were no significant differences between the left and right sides (P > .05), except for VAIOS-CBCT (P = .028). Significant differences were not found between MA and VAIOS-FS (P > .05). Bland-Altman plots indicated VAIOS-CBCT, VAIOS-FS, and JTD were considered to substitute MA with high 95% limits of agreement.

Conclusion: The workflow of VAIOS-FS provided an alternative approach to measure the SCI compared with MA.

Keywords: Articulator; Cone beam computed tomography; Facial scan; Intraoral scan; Sagittal condylar inclination.