Objective: Scarce data examined the associations of circulating calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in humans. We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study to evaluate the associations of serum Ca, Mg, and Ca/Mg ratio with hsCRP and examine the mediating roles of body mass index (BMI).
Methods: A total of 7203 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) (average age: 61.0 years) were included. Serum concentrations of Ca, Mg, and hsCRP were measured.
Results: The multivariate analysis of covariance was used to determine Ca- and Mg-hsCRP associations. Serum Ca and Mg were inversely associated with hsCRP, while no significant association between Ca/Mg ratio and hsCRP was detected. After adjustment for age and sex, higher Ca and Mg concentrations were associated with lower hsCRP (quintile5 [Q5] vs. Q1: 6.35 vs. 11.88 mmol/L for Ca; Q4 vs. Q1: 4.61 vs. 6.44 mmol/L for Mg). The multivariate-adjusted analysis found that serum Ca and Mg were inversely associated with hsCRP levels (Q5 vs. Q1: 6.69 vs. 11.33 mmol/L for Ca; Q4 vs. Q1: 4.65 vs. 6.32 mmol/L for Mg). Similar findings were observed in the stratified analyses by sex (men and women) and BMI (< 28 and ≥ 28 kg/m2). In path analysis, BMI had no mediating effects on the Ca- or Mg-hsCRP associations.
Conclusion: Generally, our study showed significant inverse associations of serum Ca and Mg with hsCRP in CAD patients. Our findings provided further support for the anti-inflammatory effects of Ca and Mg in CAD patients.
Keywords: Calcium; cross-sectional study; high sensitivity c-reactive protein; magnesium; path analysis.