Managers' and providers' perspectives on barriers and facilitators for the implementation of differentiated service delivery models for HIV treatment in Mozambique: a qualitative study

J Int AIDS Soc. 2023 Mar;26(3):e26076. doi: 10.1002/jia2.26076.


Introduction: In 2018, Mozambique's Ministry of Health launched a guideline for a nationwide implementation of eight differentiated service delivery models to optimize HIV service delivery and achieve universal coverage of HIV care and treatment. The models were (1) Fast-track, (2) Three-month Antiretrovirals Dispensing, (3) Community Antiretroviral Therapy Groups, (4) Adherence Clubs, (5) Family-approach, and three one-stop shop models for (6) Tuberculosis, (7) Maternal and Child Health, and (8) Adolescent-friendly Health Services. This study identified drivers of implementation success and failure across these differentiated service delivery models.

Methods: Twenty in-depth individual interviews were conducted with managers and providers from the Ministry of Health and implementing partners from all levels of the health system between July and September 2021. National-level participants were based in the capital city of Maputo, and participants at provincial, district and health facility levels were from Sofala province, a purposively selected setting. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) guided data collection and thematic analysis. Deductively selected constructs were assessed while allowing for additional themes to emerge inductively.

Results: The CFIR constructs of Relative Advantage, Complexity, Patient Needs and Resources, and Reflecting and Evaluating were identified as drivers of implementation, whereas Available Resources and Access to Knowledge and Information were identified as barriers. Fast-track and Three-month Antiretrovirals Dispensing models were deemed easier to implement and more effective in reducing workload. Adherence Clubs and Community Antiretroviral Therapy Groups were believed to be less preferred by clients in urban settings. COVID-19 (an inductive theme) improved acceptance and uptake of individual differentiated service delivery models that reduced client visits, but it temporarily interrupted the implementation of group models.

Conclusions: This study described important determinants to be addressed or leveraged for the successful implementation of differentiated service delivery models in Mozambique. The models were considered advantageous overall for the health system and clients when compared with the standard of care. However, successful implementation requires resources and ongoing training for frontline providers. COVID-19 expedited individual models by loosening the inclusion criteria; this experience can be leveraged to optimize the design and implementation of differentiated service delivery models in Mozambique and other countries.

Keywords: CFIR; HIV; Mozambique; barriers and facilitators; differentiated service delivery; managers’ and providers’ perspectives.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • COVID-19*
  • Child
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • Health Facilities
  • Humans
  • Mozambique
  • Qualitative Research


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents