Background: Extracellular renal interstitial guanosine cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) inhibits renal proximal tubule (RPT) sodium (Na+) reabsorption via Src (Src family kinase) activation. Through which target extracellular cGMP acts to induce natriuresis is unknown. We hypothesized that cGMP binds to the extracellular α1-subunit of NKA (sodium-potassium ATPase) on RPT basolateral membranes to inhibit Na+ transport similar to ouabain-a cardiotonic steroid.
Methods: Urine Na+ excretion was measured in uninephrectomized 12-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats that received renal interstitial infusions of vehicle (5% dextrose in water), cGMP (18, 36, and 72 μg/kg per minute; 30 minutes each), or cGMP+rostafuroxin (12 ng/kg per minute) or were subjected to pressure-natriuresis±rostafuroxin infusion. Rostafuroxin is a digitoxigenin derivative that displaces ouabain from NKA.
Results: Renal interstitial cGMP and raised renal perfusion pressure induced natriuresis and increased phosphorylated SrcTyr416 and Erk 1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2)Thr202/Tyr204; these responses were abolished with rostafuroxin coinfusion. To assess cGMP binding to NKA, we performed competitive binding studies with isolated rat RPTs using bodipy-ouabain (2 μM)+cGMP (10 µM) or rostafuroxin (10 µM) and 8-biotin-11-cGMP (2 μM)+ouabain (10 μM) or rostafuroxin (10 µM). cGMP or rostafuroxin reduced bodipy-ouabain fluorescence intensity, and ouabain or rostafuroxin reduced 8-biotin-11-cGMP staining. We cross-linked isolated rat RPTs with 4-N3-PET-8-biotin-11-cGMP (2 μM); 8-N3-6-biotin-10-cAMP served as negative control. Precipitation with streptavidin beads followed by immunoblot analysis showed that RPTs after cross-linking with 4-N3-PET-8-biotin-11-cGMP exhibited a significantly stronger signal for NKA than non-cross-linked samples and cross-linked or non-cross-linked 8-N3-6-biotin-10-cAMP RPTs. Ouabain (10 μM) reduced NKA in cross-linked 4-N3-PET-8-biotin-11-cGMP RPTs confirming fluorescence staining. 4-N3-PET-8-biotin-11-cGMP cross-linked samples were separated by SDS gel electrophoresis and slices corresponding to NKA molecular weight excised and processed for mass spectrometry. NKA was the second most abundant protein with 50 unique NKA peptides covering 47% of amino acids in NKA. Molecular modeling demonstrated a potential cGMP docking site in the ouabain-binding pocket of NKA.
Conclusions: cGMP can bind to NKA and thereby mediate natriuresis.
Keywords: amino acids; natriuresis; ouabain; perfusion; sodium.