Background and hypothesis: Dynamics of the distributed sets of functionally synchronized brain regions, known as large-scale networks, are essential for the emotional state and cognitive processes. However, few studies were performed to elucidate the aberrant dynamics across the large-scale networks across multiple psychiatric disorders. In this paper, we aimed to investigate dynamic aspects of the aberrancy of the causal connections among the large-scale networks of the multiple psychiatric disorders.
Study design: We applied dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to the large-sample multi-site dataset with 739 participants from 4 imaging sites including 4 different groups, healthy controls, schizophrenia (SCZ), major depressive disorder (MDD), and bipolar disorder (BD), to compare the causal relationships among the large-scale networks, including visual network, somatomotor network (SMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), salience network (SAN), limbic network (LIN), frontoparietal network, and default mode network.
Study results: DCM showed that the decreased self-inhibitory connection of LIN was the common aberrant connection pattern across psychiatry disorders. Furthermore, increased causal connections from LIN to multiple networks, aberrant self-inhibitory connections of DAN and SMN, and increased self-inhibitory connection of SAN were disorder-specific patterns for SCZ, MDD, and BD, respectively.
Conclusions: DCM revealed that LIN was the core abnormal network common to psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, DCM showed disorder-specific abnormal patterns of causal connections across the 7 networks. Our findings suggested that aberrant dynamics among the large-scale networks could be a key biomarker for these transdiagnostic psychiatric disorders.
Keywords: bipolar disorder; dynamic causal modeling; major depressive disorder; schizophrenia.
© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.