The association of genitourinary cancer among Saudi patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors and a systematic literature review

Sci Rep. 2023 Mar 15;13(1):4325. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-28060-x.


The gastrointestinal tract's most commonly occurring primary mesenchymal tumor is the gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). However, few cases worldwide were reported associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Therefore, we aimed to identify the association of genitourinary tumors in patients with GIST in our tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia and compare it to the literature. We identified all patients in the pathology department database with the diagnosis of GIST. We excluded duplicate and recurrent cases. We examined patients' files for the presence of RCC, adrenal tumors, or other genitourinary cancer. A systematic review of the association was conducted. From 2003 to 2020, 170 patients had a histopathologic diagnosis of primary GIST, 100 men and 70 women, median age of 57 (range 9-91) years at the time of diagnosis. The site of primary GIST was gastric 103, small bowel 43, mesenteric 5, omentum/peritoneum 7, abdomen 4, isolated adrenal 1, and other 7. Six patients had associated primary genitourinary cancer. Three patients had RCC (two clear cell RCC and one radiologic diagnosis only), and three had adrenal tumors (one adrenal carcinoma, one an isolated adrenal GIST, and one pheochromocytoma). In addition, two patients had a tumor invading the urinary bladder. Although the cohort included 63 men aged 60 or above (median 71 ± 8.7 years, range 60-94), none demonstrated clinical prostatic carcinoma. Data was compared to 69 systematic review articles. We report the rare association between GIST tumors and primary genitourinary cancer, mainly RCC and adrenal tumors. Also, we identified a secondary invasion of the urinary bladder. Unlike the reported series, none of the older male patients had clinical prostate cancer.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adrenal Gland Neoplasms*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell*
  • Child
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors* / epidemiology
  • Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Kidney Neoplasms*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Saudi Arabia / epidemiology
  • Young Adult