The 15-year national trends of genital cancer incidence among Iranian men and women; 2005-2020

BMC Public Health. 2023 Mar 15;23(1):495. doi: 10.1186/s12889-023-15417-0.


Background: Cancer is a major health problem and cause of mortality worldwide. Despite the prevalence of other cancers in males and females, genital cancers are especially important because of their psychological effects on individuals. Currently, cervical cancer, corpus uteri neoplasm, and ovarian cancer are the most common gynecological cancers in Iran. Prostate cancer has increased in Iranian men in the last decade. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the 15-year national trend in the incidence of genital cancers in the Iranian population.

Methods: In this study, we used Iranian cancer registration data collected by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, demographic information from the reports of the Statistics Center of Iran, STEPs (STEPwise approach to non-communicable diseases risk factor surveillance), and Caspian (childhood and adolescence surveillance and prevention of adult non-communicable disease). A list of potential auxiliary variables and secondary variables at all levels of the province-age-sex were evaluated during the years. We used mixed-effects Poisson regression to model the data and calculate the incidence of each cancer.

Results: Our results show an enhancement in the outbreak of all types of male cancers, but the most important are prostate (11.46 in 2005 to 25.67 in 2020 per 100,000 males) and testicular cancers (2.39 in 2005 to 5.05 per 100,000 males). As for female cancers, there has been an increase in ovarian and corpus uteri neoplasm incidence with 6.69 and 4.14 incidences per 100,000 females in 2020, making them the most occurring female genital neoplasms. While the occurrence of cervical cancer has decreased over the years (4.65 in 2005 to 3.24 in 2020). In general, the incidence of genital cancers in men and women has amplified in the last 15 years.

Conclusions: Our study examined the trend of change for each malignant genital neoplasm for 15 years in Iranian men and women in each province. Considering the growing trend of the elderly population in Iran, patient awareness and early screening are essential in reducing mortality and costs imposed on patients and the health care system.

Keywords: Cervical cancer; Genital cancer; Ovarian cancer; Prostate cancer; Testicular cancer.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Female
  • Genital Neoplasms, Female* / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Iran / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Registries
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms* / epidemiology