Recovery of sperm quality after COVID-19 disease in male adults under the influence of a micronutrient combination: A prospective study

Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2023 Mar 13;95(1):11157. doi: 10.4081/aiua.2023.11157.


Objective: This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a standard micronutrient preparation to improve semen parameters and seminal oxidative stress in adult male subjects after Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease.

Methods: For this prospective pilot study, 30 males aged 20-50 years who had recently recovered from a symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection were recruited from June to October 2021 through a public call for participation. Participants of the study group (n = 30) received two semen analyses according to WHO criteria at an interval of 12 weeks, during which they daily received a micronutrient preparation (L-carnitine, L-arginine, coenzyme Q10, vitamin E, zinc, folic acid, glutathione and selenium). Changes in major semen variables and seminal oxidative stress levels before and after therapy were analyzed and compared to a control group (n = 10) adhering to the same inclusion criteria, including subjects who recently recovered from symptomatic COVID-19 disease without micronutrient supplementation within the 12 weeks between the two semen analyses.

Results: After 3 months of micronutrient supplementation the rate of normal semen analysis results in the study group increased significantly (p = 0.009) by 66.7%: from 50.0% before to 83.3% after therapy. There was a significant increase in progressive (p = 0.014) and overall motility (p = 0.05) as well as in the vitality (p = 0.0004) of semen cells after 12 weeks of micronutrient intake. In the control group there were no significant changes in any semen parameter or in the rate of normal semen analysis results over the 3-month observation period. In both groups, sperm density, morphology and oxidative stress did not improve significantly.

Conclusions: Our data suggests that supplementation of certain micronutrients may be a safe way to support recovery of impaired semen parameters in male adults recovered from COVID-19 disease.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • COVID-19*
  • Humans
  • Infertility, Male*
  • Male
  • Micronutrients
  • Pilot Projects
  • Prospective Studies
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Semen
  • Semen Analysis
  • Sperm Motility
  • Spermatozoa


  • Micronutrients