Influence of genetic variability in toll-like receptors (TLR 2, TLR 4, and TLR 9) on human immunodeficiency virus-1 disease progression

Int J Mycobacteriol. 2023 Jan-Mar;12(1):10-16. doi: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_190_22.


Background: It has been demonstrated that toll-like receptors (TLR2), TLR4, and TLR9 which were initially known for recognizing bacterial products are involved in the detection of viral components. It was planned to undertake a prospective longitudinal study among ethnically homogeneous antiretroviral treatment and antitubercular treatment naïve human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients representing the north Indian population. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 polymorphism in HIV disease progression.

Methods: The present study was designed to investigate genetic polymorphism in TLRs (TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9) among HIV-infected patients with and without TB coinfection. The study population consisted of two groups: (i) HIV-positive patients without TB infection and disease (n = 223, HIV-positive patients); (ii) HIV-positive patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) (n = 150, HIV-positive LTBI patients). These participants were of either gender between 18 and 60 years of age and treatment naïve for both TB and HIV. HIV-positive and HIV-positive LTBI patients were longitudinally followed up for t2 years to study HIV disease progression.

Results: On comparing TLR2 and TLR4 allelic and genotypic frequencies between 306 HIV-positive patients (no TB/AIDS) and 47 HIV-positive patients progressed to active TB/AIDS, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. The frequency of "A" allele in TLR9 was found to be significantly increased in 47 HIV-positive patients who progressed to active TB/AIDS (61.7%) as compared to 42.16% in 306 HIV-positive patients (no TB/AIDS), (P < 0.001). Furthermore, a significantly increased frequency of "AA" genotype in TLR9 was observed in 47 HIV-positive patients progressed to active TB/AIDS (55.32%) as compared to 20.26% in HIV-positive patients (no TB/AIDS).

Conclusion: Findings of the present study revealed that genetic variability in TLR9 may influence HIV disease progression. The AA genotype in TLR9 may be associated with progression to TB/AIDS for 2 years in HIV-positive patients.

Keywords: HIV; polymorphism; toll-like receptors; tuberculosis.

MeSH terms

  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome*
  • Disease Progression
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • HIV
  • HIV Infections* / genetics
  • Humans
  • Latent Tuberculosis*
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Prospective Studies
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2 / genetics
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4 / genetics
  • Toll-Like Receptor 9 / genetics
  • Toll-Like Receptors / genetics


  • Toll-Like Receptor 2
  • Toll-Like Receptor 9
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • Toll-Like Receptors