Complete genome sequence analysis and biological characteristics of Newcastle disease viruses from different hosts in China

Virus Genes. 2023 Mar 16. doi: 10.1007/s11262-023-01988-y. Online ahead of print.


Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most serious diseases affecting poultry worldwide. In 2022, we studied two strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from pigeons and magpies identified by PCR and propagated in SPF chicken embryos. The whole genome of the virus was then expanded and its biological characteristics were studied. The results showed that NDV was isolated from pigeons and magpies. Virus present in the allantoic fluid could agglutinate red blood cells and could not be neutralized by serum positive for avian influenza. Sequencing showed that the gene length of the two isolates was 15,191 bp, had high homology and was located in the same branch of the phylogenetic tree, both belonging to genotype VI.1.1. The sequence of 112-117 amino acids in the F gene sequence was 112R-R-Q-K-R-F117, which constituted virulent strain characteristics. The HN gene contained 577 amino acids, which is also consistent with the characteristics of a virulent strain. The results from the study of biological characteristics revealed that the virulence of SX/TY/Pi01/22 was slightly stronger. There were only four different bases in the complete sequence of the two strains. Comprehensive analysis revealed that the G at 11,847 site of the SX/TY/Ma01/22 strain may change to T, leading to translation of amino acids from R to S, thereby weakening viral virulence. Therefore, NDV was transmitted from pigeons to magpies, indicating that the pathogen could be transmitted between poultry and wild birds.

Keywords: Complete gene sequence; F genes; ICPI; Magpie; NDV; Pigeons.