Background: Patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy with stage I intermediate-risk Wilms tumor (IR-WT) represent the largest group of patients with Wilms tumor (WT), and they have excellent outcomes.
Methods: The authors performed a retrospective analysis of patients with stage I epithelial (ET-WT) or stromal type WT (ST-WT) treated pre- and postoperatively according to the International Society of Paediatric Oncology-WT-2001 protocol in the UK Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group and Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie groups' participation in the relevant WT trials and studies (2001-2020).
Results: There were 880 patients with stage I IR-WT, including 124 with ET-WT, 156 with ST-WT, and 600 with other IR-WT (oIR-WT). Patients with stage I ET-WT or ST-WT were significantly younger than patients with oIR-WT, represented a large proportion of stage I WTs in their groups, and tumors showed poor histologic response to preoperative chemotherapy. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) estimates for patients with stage I ET-WT (96.8% ± 1.8 SE) or ST-WT (96.8% ± 1.6 SE) were significantly better than for patients with oIR-WT (90.3% ± 1.3 SE) (p = .014 and p = .009, respectively). A multivariate analysis showed that histologic type (ET-WT or ST-WT) remained a significant factor for EFS when adjusted for age and gender (p = .032 and p = .022, respectively). In both groups, relapses occurred in 3.2% of patients, and the overall survival was 99.2%.
Conclusions: The results suggest that stage I ET-WT or ST-WT could be regarded as low-risk WT, for which omission of postoperative chemotherapy should be considered.
Plain language summary: Patients with pretreated intermediate-risk Wilms tumor (WT) represent the largest group of patients with WT. This study reports the outcomes of patients with stage I epithelial type (ET-WT) or stromal type WT (ST-WT). These patients were significantly younger and had a larger proportion of stage I cases than patients with other intermediate-risk WT (oIR-WT). The event-free survival for patients with stage I ET-WT and ST-WT was significantly better than for patients with oIR-WT. Rare relapses were curable resulting in 99.2% overall survival.
Keywords: Wilms tumor; epithelial or stromal type; outcomes; stage I.
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