14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved regulatory proteins that interact with hundreds of structurally diverse clients and act as central hubs of signaling networks. However, how 14-3-3 paralogs differ in specificity and how they regulate client protein function are not known for most clients. Here, we map the interactomes of all human 14-3-3 paralogs and systematically characterize the effect of disrupting these interactions on client localization. The loss of 14-3-3 binding leads to the coalescence of a large fraction of clients into discrete foci in a client-specific manner, suggesting a central chaperone-like function for 14-3-3 proteins. Congruently, the engraftment of 14-3-3 binding motifs to nonclients can suppress their aggregation or phase separation. Finally, we show that 14-3-3s negatively regulate the localization of the RNA-binding protein SAMD4A to cytoplasmic granules and inhibit its activity as a translational repressor. Our work suggests that 14-3-3s have a more prominent role as chaperone-like molecules than previously thought.
Keywords: 14-3-3 proteins; affinity purification; aggregation; chaperones; functional proteomics; mass spectrometry; phase transitions; protein quality control; proximity-dependent biotinylation.
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