Isolated renal mucormycosis masquerading as emphysematous pyelonephritis

BMJ Case Rep. 2023 Mar 17;16(3):e254501. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2022-254501.


Mucormycosis is an acute, life-threatening infection and isolated renal involvement is rare. Due to the angioinvasive nature of the disease, it is rapidly progressive and can be lethal if not managed expeditiously. In patients with underlying conditions of immunosuppression, diabetes mellitus, transplantation, COVID-19, intravenous drug and substance use and pyelonephritis, which is unable to be controlled via regular antibiotics, mucormycosis must be considered on the differential and antifungals must be empirically started. Most cases are often diagnosed on histopathology, which causes delayed treatment and resolution. We present a case of emphysematous pyelonephritis diagnosed on imaging and was later found to have mucormycosis on histopathological examination.

Keywords: drugs misuse (including addiction); urinary tract infections; urological surgery; urology.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19* / complications
  • Diabetes Complications* / diagnosis
  • Emphysema* / complications
  • Emphysema* / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Kidney / diagnostic imaging
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Mucormycosis* / complications
  • Mucormycosis* / diagnosis
  • Pyelonephritis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Pyelonephritis* / drug therapy