Clinical features and factors affecting prognosis and partial deterioration of ocular papilloma: a retrospective study of 298 cases

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2023 Aug;261(8):2395-2402. doi: 10.1007/s00417-023-06035-y. Epub 2023 Mar 18.


Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the clinicopathological features of ocular papilloma, a common benign tumor, and the risk factors related to its recurrence and partial deterioration.

Methods: We collected and analyzed the clinical information of 298 patients (51.68% males) with mean age of 41.54 ± 21.95 years, in the ophthalmology department of the West China Hospital. Clinical and pathological factors that might be related to papilloma recurrence and partial deterioration were studied.

Results: The top three papilloma sites were bulbar conjunctiva, eyelid skin and palpebral conjunctiva. Moreover, 3.59% of lesions presented a malignant transformation, and 16.28% of patients had one or more recurrences after an average follow-up of 4.47 years. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that multiple lesions were a risk factor for recurrence (p = 0.022, OR = 3.088, 95% CI: 1.180-8.079), while cryotherapy decreased the recurrence risk (p = 0.044, OR = 0.364, 95% CI: 0.136-0.972). Additionally, elderly patients and lesions on the corneal limbus or cornea had a higher risk of malignant transformation (p = 0.004 and 0.01, OR = 1.086 and 7.827, 95% CI: 1.027-1.150 and 1.629-37.596, respectively).

Conclusion: Ocular papilloma usually occurs in middle-aged and young patients, with no significant gender differences. Older patients and lesions on the corneal limbus or cornea are risk factors for partial malignant transformation. Finally, multiple lesions were a risk factor for recurrence, and cryotherapy reduced the recurrence rate.

Keywords: Eye; Malignancy; Papilloma; Pathology; Recurrence.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Conjunctiva / pathology
  • Conjunctival Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Conjunctival Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Cryotherapy
  • Eyelid Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Eyelid Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Papilloma* / pathology
  • Papilloma* / surgery
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome