Present Status, Limitations, and Prospects of Using Streptomyces Bacteria as a Potential Probiotic Agent in Aquaculture

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2024 Apr;16(2):426-442. doi: 10.1007/s12602-023-10053-x. Epub 2023 Mar 18.


Streptomyces is a Gram-positive bacterium, belonging to the family Streptomycetaceae and order Streptomycetales. Several strains from different species of Streptomyces can be used to promote the health and growth of artificially cultured fish and shellfish by producing secondary metabolites including antibiotics, anticancer agents, antiparasitic agents, antifungal agents, and enzymes (protease and amylase). Some Streptomyces strains also exhibit antagonistic and antimicrobial activity against aquaculture-based pathogens by producing inhibitory compounds such as bacteriocins, siderophores, hydrogen peroxide, and organic acids to compete for nutrients and attachment sites in the host. The administration of Streptomyces in aquaculture could also induce an immune response, disease resistance, quorum sensing/antibiofilm activity, antiviral activity, competitive exclusion, modification in gastrointestinal microflora, growth enhancement, and water quality amelioration via nitrogen fixation and degradation of organic residues from the culture system. This review provides the current status and prospects of Streptomyces as potential probiotics in aquaculture, their selection criteria, administrative methods, and mechanisms of action. The limitations of Streptomyces as probiotics in aquaculture are highlighted and the solutions to these limitations are also discussed.

Keywords: Streptomyces; Aquaculture; Microflora; Pathogens; Probiotics; Toxicity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Aquaculture
  • Fishes / microbiology
  • Probiotics* / pharmacology
  • Shellfish
  • Streptomyces*