The influence of running velocity and midsole hardness on external impact forces in heel-toe running

J Biomech. 1987;20(10):951-9. doi: 10.1016/0021-9290(87)90324-1.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of midsole hardness and running velocity on external impact forces in heel-toe running. Fourteen subjects were assessed with a force platform and high speed film while running at speeds of 3, 4, 5 and 6 m s-1. The result showed that running velocity does influence external impact force peaks (linear connection) and that midsole hardness does not influence magnitude and loading rate of the external vertical impact forces. Changes in kinematic and kinetic data can be used to explain this result mechanically. However, the neuromuscular control mechanisms to keep external impact forces constant are not known.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Foot / anatomy & histology
  • Foot / physiology*
  • Gait*
  • Heel / physiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Running*
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Toes / physiology