Changes in vaccination administration in Japan

Vaccine. 2023 Apr 17;41(16):2723-2728. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2023.03.020. Epub 2023 Mar 16.

Abstract

This paper reviews the administration related to vaccination in Japan after the enactment of the Immunization Act in 1948, under which vaccination was implemented mandatory for the public. To enhance the effectiveness of vaccination activities, the government implemented group vaccination, which is convenient for vaccinating recipients all at once. In 1976, Japan established the relief system for health damage after vaccination. While some projects, such as the mass administration of live oral polio vaccine in 1961, achieved excellent results, incidents leading to health damage occurred, such as the diphtheria toxoid immunization incident (1948) and frequent occurrence of aseptic meningitis owing to the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (1989). In December 1992, the Tokyo High Court sentenced that the onset of health damage after vaccination could be attributed to the negligence of the national government. In the revision of the Immunization Act in 1994, the "mandatory vaccination" enforced until then was changed to "recommended vaccination." The Act was also changed to recommend "individual vaccination" in principle, which is performed after primary care physicians investigate the physical condition of individual recipients and carefully conduct preliminary examination. For approximately 20 years from the 1990s, a vaccine gap existed between Japan and other countries. From around 2010, efforts have been made to bridge this gap and establish the global standard in vaccination.

Keywords: Global standard in vaccination; Japan; Japan’s Immunisation Act; Vaccine gap.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Measles Vaccine
  • Measles* / prevention & control
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine
  • Mumps Vaccine
  • Mumps*
  • Rubella Vaccine
  • Rubella* / prevention & control
  • Vaccination

Substances

  • Rubella Vaccine
  • Mumps Vaccine
  • Measles Vaccine
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine