COVID-19 vaccination and menstrual disorders among women: Findings from a meta-analysis study

J Infect Public Health. 2023 May;16(5):697-704. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2023.02.019. Epub 2023 Mar 2.


Background: COVID - 19 vaccine can lead to various local and systemic side effects, including menstrual irregularities in women. There is no robust quantitative evidence of the association between the COVID - 19 vaccine and menstrual irregularities. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the pooled prevalence of a range of menstrual disorders that may occur in women following COVID - 19 vaccination.

Methods: After searching for epidemiological studies, we systematically performed a meta-analysis on PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and Science Direct. Sixteen studies were finally included in the study. We estimated the pooled prevalence and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for a group of menstrual disorders, including menorrhagia, polymenorrhea, abnormal cycle length, and oligomenorrhea. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic and the Q test.

Results: Overall, the pooled prevalence of menorrhagia was 24.24 % (pooled prevalence 24.24 %; 95 % CI: 12.8-35.6 %). The pooled prevalence of polymenorrhea was 16.2 % (pooled prevalence: 16.2 %; 95 % CI: 10.7-21.6 %). The pooled prevalence of abnormal cycle length was relatively lower than that of the other disorders (pooled prevalence: 6.6 %; 95 % CI: 5.0-8.2 %). The pooled prevalence of oligomenorrhea was 22.7 % (95 % CI: 13.5-32.0 %).

Conclusion: The findings indicate that menorrhagia, oligomenorrhea, and polymenorrhea were the most common menstrual irregularities after vaccination. The findings also suggest that a relatively high proportion of women suffer from menstrual irregularities. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the causal relationship between COVID-19 vaccination and menstrual irregularities.

Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine; Menstrual irregularities; Meta-analysis.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19 Vaccines* / adverse effects
  • COVID-19* / complications
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Menorrhagia* / complications
  • Menorrhagia* / epidemiology
  • Menstruation Disturbances / epidemiology
  • Menstruation Disturbances / etiology
  • Oligomenorrhea / complications
  • Oligomenorrhea / epidemiology
  • Vaccination / adverse effects


  • COVID-19 Vaccines