The prevalence of depression among parents of children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2023 Mar 1:14:1095729. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1095729. eCollection 2023.


Background: Emerging research indicates that depression among parents of children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has increased significantly. However, the prevalence rates reported by different studies vary substantially.

Methods: Seven databases were systematically searched (Pubmed, Embase, MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PsycInfo) from the inception to 15th October 2022. We pooled prevalence rates from each study with a random-effect model. We conducted a stratified meta-analysis to identify the potential sources of heterogeneity among studies. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations) approach was utilized to evaluate the quality of evidence.

Results: Twenty-two studies were included, with a total of 4639 parents living with type 1 diabetic children. Overall, the pooled prevalence rate of depression or depressive symptoms was 22.4% (95%CI 17.2% to 28.7%; I 2 = 96.8%). The prevalence was higher among mothers (31.5%) than fathers (16.3%) as well as parents of children (aged < 12 years) with T1DM (32.3%) than those with adolescents (aged ≥ 12 years) (16.0%).

Conclusion: Our research suggests that more than 1 in 5 parents of type 1 diabetic children/adolescents worldwide suffer from depression or depressive symptom. Depression screening and interventions are required for parents of children with T1DM.

Systematic review registration:, identifier (CRD42022368702).

Keywords: adolescents; children; parental depression; parental mental illness; systematic review and meta-analysis; type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Depression / etiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Mothers
  • Parents
  • Prevalence

Grants and funding

This work was supported by Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation of Guangdong Province (No. 2022A1515012454).