Artificial intelligence applications in pediatric oncology diagnosis

Explor Target Antitumor Ther. 2023;4(1):157-169. doi: 10.37349/etat.2023.00127. Epub 2023 Feb 28.


Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms have been applied in abundant medical tasks with high accuracy and efficiency. Physicians can improve their diagnostic efficiency with the assistance of AI techniques for improving the subsequent personalized treatment and surveillance. AI algorithms fundamentally capture data, identify underlying patterns, achieve preset endpoints, and provide decisions and predictions about real-world events with working principles of machine learning and deep learning. AI algorithms with sufficient graphic processing unit power have been demonstrated to provide timely diagnostic references based on preliminary training of large amounts of clinical and imaging data. The sample size issue is an inevitable challenge for pediatric oncology considering its low morbidity and individual heterogeneity. However, this problem may be solved in the near future considering the exponential advancements of AI algorithms technically to decrease the dependence of AI operation on the amount of data sets and the efficiency of computing power. For instance, it could be a feasible solution by shifting convolutional neural networks (CNNs) from adults and sharing CNN algorithms across multiple institutions besides original data. The present review provides important insights into emerging AI applications for the diagnosis of pediatric oncology by systematically overviewing of up-to-date literature.

Keywords: Pediatric oncology; artificial intelligence; cancer diagnosis; deep learning; machine learning.

Publication types

  • Review