Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a highly heterogeneous, multifocal disease, and identification of clinically significant lesions is challenging, which complicates the choice of adequate treatment. The Prostatype® score (P-score) is intended to guide treatment decisions for newly diagnosed PCa patients based on a three-gene signature (IGFBP3, F3, and VGLL3) and clinicopathological information obtained at diagnosis. This study evaluated association of the P-score measured in preoperative magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasound fusion-guided core needle biopsies (CNBs) and the P-score measured in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens of PCa patients. We also evaluated the P-score association with the pathology of RP specimens. Furthermore, concordance of the P-score in paired CNB and RP specimens, as well as in index versus concomitant nonindex tumor foci from the same RP was investigated.
Methods: The study included 100 patients with localized PCa. All patients were diagnosed by CNB and underwent RP between 2015 and 2018. Gene expression was assessed with the Prostatype® real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction kit and the P-score was calculated. Patients were categorized into three P-score risk groups according to previously defined cutoffs.
Results: For 71 patients, sufficient CNB tumor material was available for comparison with the RP specimens. The CNB-based P-score was associated with the pathological T-stage in RP specimens (p = 0.02). Moreover, the CNB-based P-score groups were in substantial agreement with the RP-based P-score groups (weighted κ score: 0.76 [95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 0.60-0.92]; Spearman's rank correlation coefficient r = 0.83 [95% CI: 0.74-0.89]; p < 0.0001). Similarly, the P-score groups based on paired index tumor and concomitant nonindex tumor foci (n = 64) were also in substantial agreement (weighted κ score: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.57-0.91]; r = 0.83 [95% CI: 0.73-0.89], p < 0.0001).
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the P-score based on preoperative CNB accurately reflects the pathology of the whole tumor, highlighting its value as a decision support tool for newly diagnosed PCa patients.
Keywords: biomarker; core needle biopsy; prognosis; prostate cancer; prostatectomy.
© 2023 The Authors. The Prostate published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.