2022 European guideline for the management of balanoposthitis

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2023 Jun;37(6):1104-1117. doi: 10.1111/jdv.18954. Epub 2023 Mar 21.


Background: This guideline is an update to the 2014 edition of the European guideline for the management of balanoposthitis. Balanoposthitis describes inflammation of the glans penis and prepuce and is caused by a range of disparate conditions including infection, dermatoses and premalignancy.

Objective: The main objectives of this guideline are to aid recognition of the symptoms and signs and complications of penile skin conditions and to offer recommendations on the diagnostic tests and treatment for a selected group of these conditions.

Methods: The previous guideline was updated following a literature review and priority was given to randomized controlled trial and systematic review evidence.

Results: The updated guideline includes amended management for infective balanitis to provide clear guidance for Group A streptococcal infections, management of on going Lichen sclerosus (to include circumcision and supportive management to reduce the recurrence of genital herpes and warts), additional regimens for Zoonoid change, use of calcineurin inhibitors in management and risk of premalignancy and change of nomenclaturefrom Premalignant conditions to Penile Intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN).

Conclusion: Balanoposthitis has a widerange of causes high quality evidence specific to the management of penile disease is not available for all the conditions described.

Publication types

  • Guideline
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Balanitis* / diagnosis
  • Balanitis* / therapy
  • Circumcision, Male* / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Penile Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Penile Diseases* / drug therapy
  • Penile Neoplasms* / complications
  • Penile Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Penile Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Penis / pathology
  • Precancerous Conditions* / complications