The Evolution of Sedation for Pediatric Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2023 Apr;33(2):213-234. doi: 10.1016/j.giec.2022.10.001.


Sedation for pediatric endoscopy has evolved from an endoscopist-administered component of procedures to an almost entirely anesthesiologist-supported endeavor. Nevertheless, there are no ideal endoscopist or anesthesiologist-administered sedation protocols, and wide practice variation exists in both models. Furthermore, sedation for pediatric endoscopy, whether administered by endoscopists or anesthesiologists, remains the highest risk to patient safety. This underscores the importance of both specialties identifying best sedation practices together that can safeguard patients while maximizing procedural efficiency and minimizing costs. In this review, the authors discuss specific levels of sedation for endoscopy and the risks and benefits of various regimens.

Keywords: Endoscopy; Gastrointestinal; Gastrointestinal procedures; General anesthesia; Pediatrics; Procedural sedation; Sedation; Sedatives.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Conscious Sedation / methods
  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives
  • Propofol*


  • Propofol
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives