Background: Minimal residual disease (MRD) is an important prognostic factor for survival in adults with acute leukemia. The role of pretransplantation MRD status in myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts (MDS-EB) is unknown. This study retrospectively analyzed the relationship between pretransplantation MRD status and long-term survival.
Materials and methods: Patients with MDS-EB who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) from March 5, 2005, to November 8, 2020, were included. The relationship between pretransplantation MRD status and long-term survival was analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models.
Results: Of 220 patients with MDS-EB who underwent allo-HSCT, 198 were eligible for inclusion in this multicenter, retrospective cohort study. Complete remission was attained in 121 (61.1%) patients, and 103 patients underwent detection of MRD pretransplantation, with 67 patients being MRD-positive and 36 patients being MRD-negative. The median follow-up time was 16 months, the median age was 41 years (6-65 years), and 58% of the patients were men. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) probabilities for all patients were 70.1% and 72.9%, respectively. For patients in complete remission, the 3-year DFS and OS probabilities were 72.2% and 74.8%, respectively. Further analysis found that the 3-year DFS rates of MRD-negative and MRD-positive patients were 85.6% and 66.5% (p = .045), respectively, whereas the 3-year OS rates were 91.3% and 66.4% (p = .035), respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that poor pretransplantation MRD clearance was an independent prognostic risk factor for DFS and OS.
Conclusion: Poor pretransplantation MRD clearance is an independent prognostic risk factor for long-term survival after allo-HSCT for patients with MDS-EB.
Plain language summary: Poor minimal residual disease clearance pretransplanation is an independent prognostic risk factor for long-term survival after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts.
Keywords: disease-free survival; independent prognostic risk; minimal residual disease; myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts; overall survival.
© 2023 American Cancer Society.