Endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (EHH) is a rare condition with an incidence of approximately 4-6 per million person-years and comprises a group of disorders causing hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia without exogenous administration of insulin or its secretagogues. In adults, most cases (approximately 90%) are secondary to a single insulinoma. Other causes include insulinoma in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (approximately 5% of cases) and non-insulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome, which is estimated to account for 0.5-5% of all cases. Recently, an entity called insulinomatosis has been described as a novel cause of EHH in adults. The characteristic feature of insulinomatosis is the synchronous or metachronous occurrence of multiple pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors expressing exclusively insulin. While most cases arise sporadically, there is recent evidence that autosomal dominant inheritance of mutations in the v-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MAFA) gene can cause a familial form of insulinomatosis. In these families, EHH is paradoxically associated with the occurrence of diabetes mellitus within the same family. This review summarizes the current clinical, biochemical, imaging and genetic knowledge of this disease.
Keywords: MAFA gene; endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia; insulinomatosis.