Ovarian dysgerminoma: clues to the radiological diagnosis

Diagn Interv Radiol. 2023 Jan 31;29(1):18-23. doi: 10.5152/dir.2022.21317. Epub 2022 Dec 21.


Ovarian dysgerminoma (OD) is a rare germ cell tumor accounting for 1%-2% of all malignant ovarian tumors and is generally associated with a good prognosis. The condition is more frequent in young women and can arise in dysgenetic gonads that contain gonadoblastomas. While the definitive diagnosis of OD is only possible histologically, certain radiological features can provide facilitating clues. A large, unilateral, solid, lobulated ovarian tumor with markedly enhancing septa should raise the suspicion of OD in young women. Serum lactate dehydrogenase is characteristically elevated in this tumor type and can complement its diagnosis and postoperative follow-up; however, it is a nonspecific marker. Moreover, knowing the mimickers of OD is essential to optimizing the radiological image interpretation and allowing for adequate management and timely treatment. Therefore, in this article, the radiological and clinical-pathologic features of ODs were reviewed to allow radiologists to become familiarized with them and narrow the diagnostic possibilities when facing this type of tumor.

Keywords: Computed tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; ovarian dysgerminoma; radiology; ultrasound.

MeSH terms

  • Dysgerminoma* / diagnostic imaging
  • Dysgerminoma* / pathology
  • Dysgerminoma* / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal*
  • Ovarian Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Ovarian Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Radiography

Supplementary concepts

  • Ovarian Germ Cell Cancer