Purpose: This study aimed to predict the ability to insert a 4-5 French (Fr) catheter insertion with a guidewire into the common hepatic artery (CHA) based on celiac trunk morphology.
Methods: This retrospective study included 64 patients who underwent balloon-occluded transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (n = 56), transcatheter arterial chemotherapy (n = 2), or were fitted with an implantable port system (n = 6) between June 2019 and December 2019 in our institution. The morphology of the celiac trunk was classified into three types (upward, horizontal, and downward) based on celiac angiography. The aortic-celiac trunk angle was measured on sagittal images of preprocedural contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). We reviewed whether a 4-5-Fr shepherd's hook catheter could advance beyond the CHA using a 0.035-inch guidewire (Radifocus® Guidewire M; Terumo). Three patients were diagnosed with median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) based on the characteristic hook shape of the celiac artery on sagittal images of contrast-enhanced CT. The predictive ability of celiac angiography and preprocedural CT for CHA insertion success was evaluated. In unsuccessful cases, the balloon anchor technique (BAT) was attempted as follows: (1) a 2.7/2.8-Fr microballoon catheter (Attendant Delta; Terumo) was placed beyond the proper hepatic artery, and (2) the balloon was inflated as an anchor for parent catheter advancement.
Results: Upward, horizontal, and downward celiac trunk types were noted in 42, 9, and 13 patients, respectively. The median CT angle was 122.83° (first quartile-third quartile, 102.88°-136.55°). Insertion in the CHA using the guidewire was successful in 56 of 64 patients (87.50%), and the success rate in the downward type was significantly lower than that in the upward type [42/42 (100%) vs. 7/13 (53.85%), P < 0.001]. The CT angle was significantly larger downward in the unsuccessful group than in the successful group (121.03° vs. 140.70°, P = 0.043). Celiac angiography had a significantly higher area under the curve (AUC) than preprocedural CT (AUC = 0.91 vs. AUC = 0.72, P = 0.040). All three cases of MALS showed unsuccessful CHA insertion. In all eight patients with unsuccessful insertion, the catheter could be advanced using the BAT [8/8 (100%)].
Conclusion: Celiac angiography and preprocedural CT could predict CHA catheter insertion using a guidewire, and celiac angiography had high predictability. CT could detect MALS, a risk factor for unsuccessful CHA insertion.
Keywords: Balloon anchor technique; balloon-occluded transcatheter arterial chemoembolization; celiac trunk morphology; common hepatic artery insertion; the aortic-celiac trunk angle.