R wave peak time and no reflow following primary percutaneous coronary intervention: Immediate and short-term outcomes

J Electrocardiol. 2023 Jul-Aug:79:66-74. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2023.03.003. Epub 2023 Mar 12.


Background: No reflow (NR) remains an important constraint in management of ST elevation myocardial Infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Most ECG parameters validated till date including ST resolution are postprocedural. R wave peak time (RWPT) is a dynamic parameter and reflects conduction delay in ischaemic myocardium in selected leads supplied by infarct related artery (IRA). The present study was undertaken to see whether preprocedural RWPT per se or RWPT following primary PCI can predict persistence of NR along with immediate and short-term clinical outcome.

Methods: 200 patients were enrolled after exclusion. Clinical, Biochemical, ECG parameters including RPWT and angiographic parameters (pre- and post-procedure) were recorded. ECG papers was analysed using digital image processing software (http://imagej.nih.gov/ij/). All patients were followed up for 6 months.

Results: NR was observed in 35% of the patients. Age, Diabetes, symptom to balloon time, higher thrombus burden, peak CPK-MB level (pre and post procedure) were significantly higher in NR group. On ECG analysis, baseline RWPT, QRS duration and pathological Q wave were significantly higher in NR group. On multivariate analysis, age (OR 1.10 CI 1.00-1.21 P = 0.04), thrombus grade ≥ 3 in IRA (OR 12.38 CI 2.08-73.58 P = 0.006), symptom to balloon time (OR 2.18 CI 1.6-3.0 P < 0.001) and baseline RWPT on ECG [OR 1.86 CI 1.24-2.78, P = 0.003] were found to be independent predictors of NR. Increase in RWPT following primary PCI was found to both highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing persistence of NR after primary PCI. Follow up at the end of 6 months has shown that patients with increased RWPT following primary PCI had worse short-term cardiovascular outcomes compared to those with decreased RWPT following primary PCI.

Conclusion: Baseline RWPT is a significant predictor of NR in patients of STEMI undergoing primary PCI. A persistently increased RWPT following primary PCI is also a highly sensitive and specific ECG marker of persistence of NR which is associated with adverse short-term clinical outcome.

Keywords: No reflow; Primary percutaneous coronary intervention; R wave peak time.

MeSH terms

  • Coronary Angiography
  • Electrocardiography
  • Humans
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention*
  • ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction* / diagnosis
  • ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction* / etiology
  • ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction* / surgery
  • Treatment Outcome