Premeal almond load decreases postprandial glycaemia, adiposity and reversed prediabetes to normoglycemia: A randomized controlled trial

Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2023 Apr:54:12-22. doi: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2022.12.028. Epub 2022 Dec 29.


Background: Asian Indians show rapid conversion from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Novel dietary strategies are needed to arrest this progression, by targeting postprandial hyperglycaemia (PPHG).

Design: We conducted a free-living randomized controlled open-label parallel arm study to evaluate the effect of a premeal load of almonds (20 g) 30 min before major meals on anthropometric, glycaemic, and metabolic parameters over 3 months. Sixty-six participants with prediabetes in the age range of 18-60 yrs were recruited. The study was registered at (registration no. NCT04769726).

Results: Thirty participants in each arm completed the study. As per 'intention-to-treat' analysis, overall additional mean reductions were statistically significant for body weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds, and improved handgrip strength (Kg) (p < 0·001 for all) in the treatment arm vs. the control arm (after multiple adjustments). In the blood parameters, the additional mean reduction in the treatment arm vs. control arm was statistically significant for fasting and post-75 g oral glucose-load blood glucose, postprandial insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, proinsulin, total cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0·001 for all). Most importantly, we observed a reversal to normoglycemic state (fasting blood glucose and 2 h post-OGTT glucose levels) in 23.3% (7 out of 30) of participants in the treatment arm which is comparable to that seen with Acarbose treatment (25%).

Conclusion: Incorporation of 20 g of almonds, 30 min before each major meal leads to significant improvement in body weight, WC, glycemia (particularly PPHG), and insulin resistance and shows potential for reversal of prediabetes to normal glucose regulation over 3 months.

Keywords: Almonds; Asian Indians; Postprandial glucose regulators; Postprandial hyperglycaemia; Prediabetes.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adiposity
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Body Weight
  • Cholesterol
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  • Hand Strength
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia*
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity
  • Prediabetic State*
  • Prunus dulcis* / metabolism
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Cholesterol

Associated data