Microvascular dysfunction associated with unfavorable venous outflow in acute ischemic stroke patients

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2023 Nov;43(2_suppl):106-115. doi: 10.1177/0271678X231165606. Epub 2023 Mar 27.


Unfavorable venous outflow (VO) is associated with cerebral edema, which represents microvascular dysfunction. This study estimated the relationship between VO and microvascular function in acute ischemic stroke patients. We retrospectively included 102 MCA/ICA occluded patients with anterior circulation infarction who underwent reperfusion therapy between July 2017 and April 2022. Unfavorable VO was defined as a cortical vein opacification score of 0-3 and favorable VO as that of 4-6. The clinical characteristics, collateral status, microvascular integrity, and outcomes were compared between patients with favorable and unfavorable VO. Multivariate analysis and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis were used. The patients with unfavorable VO had higher extravascular-extracellular volume fraction (Ve) in the infarct core and a lower percentage of robust arterial collateral circulation. ROC analysis revealed that Ve in the infarct core predicts unfavorable VO (AUC = 0.67, sensitivity = 65.08%, specificity = 69.23%). The higher Ve in the infarct core (odds ratio = 1.011, 95% CI = 1.000-1.021, P = 0.046) and poor arterial collateral flow (odds ratio = 0.102, 95% CI = 0.032-0.327, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of unfavorable VO. This suggests that microvascular dysfunction may be one of the mechanisms underlying impaired VO.

Keywords: Acute ischemic stroke; collaterals; microvascular dysfunction; reperfusion therapy; venous outflow.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Brain Ischemia*
  • Cerebral Angiography
  • Collateral Circulation / physiology
  • Humans
  • Infarction
  • Ischemic Stroke*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stroke*
  • Treatment Outcome