Correlation between SMADs and Colorectal Cancer Expression, Prognosis, and Immune Infiltrates

Int J Anal Chem. 2023 Mar 8:2023:8414040. doi: 10.1155/2023/8414040. eCollection 2023.

Abstract

Background: In recent years, the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) are increasing, and the 5-year survival rate of advanced metastatic CRC is poor. Small mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) superfamily are intracellular signal transduction proteins associated with the development and prognosis of a variety of tumors. At present, no study has systematically analysed the relationship between SMADs and CRC.

Methods: Here, R3.6.3 was used to analyse the expression of SMADs in pan-cancer and CRC. Protein expression of SMADs were analysed by Human Protein Atlas (HPA). Gene expression profiling interactive analysis (GEPIA) was used to evaluate the correlation between SMADs and tumor stage in CRC. The effect of R language and GEPIA on prognosis was analysed. Mutation rates of SMADs in CRC were determined by cBioPortal, and potentially related genes were predicted using GeneMANIA. R analysis was used to correlate immune cell infiltration in CRC.

Results: Both SMAD1 and SMAD2 were found to be weakly expressed in CRC and correlated with the immune invasion level. SMAD1 was correlated with patient prognosis, and SMAD2 was correlated with tumor stage. SMAD3, SMAD4, and SMAD7 were all expressed at low levels in CRC and associated with a variety of immune cells. SMAD3 and SMAD4 proteins were also expressed at low levels, and SMAD4 had the highest mutation rate. SMAD5 and SMAD6 were overexpressed in CRC, and SMAD6 was also associated with patient overall survival (OS) and CD8+ T cells, macrophages, and neutrophils.

Conclusions: Our results reveal innovative and strong evidence that SMADs can be used as biomarkers for the treatment and prognosis of CRC.