Risk of death following COVID-19 vaccination or positive SARS-CoV-2 test in young people in England

Nat Commun. 2023 Mar 27;14(1):1541. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-36494-0.


Several studies have reported associations between COVID-19 vaccination and risk of cardiac diseases, especially in young people; the impact on mortality, however, remains unclear. We use national, linked electronic health data in England to assess the impact of COVID-19 vaccination and positive SARS-CoV-2 tests on the risk of cardiac and all-cause mortality in young people (12 to 29 years) using a self-controlled case series design. Here, we show there is no significant increase in cardiac or all-cause mortality in the 12 weeks following COVID-19 vaccination compared to more than 12 weeks after any dose. However, we find an increase in cardiac death in women after a first dose of non mRNA vaccines. A positive SARS-CoV-2 test is associated with increased cardiac and all-cause mortality among people vaccinated or unvaccinated at time of testing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • COVID-19 Testing*
  • COVID-19 Vaccines* / administration & dosage
  • COVID-19 Vaccines* / adverse effects
  • COVID-19* / diagnosis
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • COVID-19* / mortality
  • COVID-19* / virology
  • Cause of Death*
  • Child
  • Electronic Health Records
  • England / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Heart Diseases / epidemiology
  • Heart Diseases / mortality
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Risk Assessment
  • SARS-CoV-2* / isolation & purification
  • Sex Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Vaccination* / adverse effects
  • Young Adult
  • mRNA Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • mRNA Vaccines / adverse effects


  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • mRNA Vaccines