Purpose: To evaluate the long-term progression pattern of myopic tractional maculopathy and the risk factors.
Methods: The prevalence and grade of myopic tractional maculopathy were assessed with optical coherence tomography at enrollment and at the 2-year follow-up. The severity of posterior staphyloma and the presence of dome-shaped macula were also evaluated.
Results: In total, 610 highly myopic eyes of 610 patients were analyzed. The prevalence of epiretinal membrane, myopic retinoschisis, and macular hole increased from 26.7%, 12.1%, and 4.4% at enrollment to 41.1%, 18.2%, and 9.5% at the 2-year follow-up, respectively. Epiretinal membrane progressed in 21.8% of eyes, but visual acuity did not decline significantly in these eyes. Myopic retinoschisis progressed in 6.8% of eyes, and macular hole progressed in 14.8% of eyes. Significantly greater best-corrected visual acuity reduction was detected in the eyes with myopic retinoschisis or macular hole progression than the rest ( P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that longer axial length, more-severe posterior staphyloma, and absence of dome-shaped macula were associated with myopic tractional maculopathy progression.
Conclusion: In highly myopic eyes, long-term visual acuity was relatively stable in those with epiretinal membrane, but was significantly affected by myopic retinoschisis or macular hole progression. Longer axial length, more-severe posterior staphyloma, and absence of dome-shaped macula were risk factors for myopic tractional maculopathy progression.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03062085.