The rising global prevalence of myopia is a growing concern for clinicians, as it predisposes patients to severe ocular pathologies including glaucoma. High myopia can be associated with clinical features that resemble glaucomatous damage, which make an accurate glaucoma diagnosis challenging, particularly among patients with normal intraocular pressures. These patients may also present with established visual field defects which can mimic glaucoma, and standard imaging technology is less useful in disease detection and monitoring due to the lack of normative data for these anatomically unique eyes. Progression over time remains the most critical factor in facilitating the detection of early glaucomatous changes, and thus careful longitudinal follow-up of high-risk myopic patients is the most important aspect of management. Here, we review our current understanding of the complex relationship between myopia and glaucoma, and the diagnostic challenges and limitations of current testing protocols including visual field, intraocular pressure, and imaging. Furthermore, we discuss the clinical findings of two highly myopic patients with suspected glaucoma.
Keywords: IOP; POAG; glaucoma; high myopia; intraocular pressure; myopia; primary open angle glaucoma; review.