Myeloperoxidase PET Imaging Tracks Intracellular and Extracellular Treatment Changes in Experimental Myocardial Infarction

Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Mar 16;24(6):5704. doi: 10.3390/ijms24065704.


Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a highly oxidative, pro-inflammatory enzyme involved in post-myocardial infarction (MI) injury and is a potential therapeutic target. While multiple MPO inhibitors have been developed, the lack of an imaging reporter to select appropriate patients and assess therapeutic efficacy has hampered clinical development. Thus, a translational imaging method to detect MPO activity non-invasively would help to better understand the role MPO plays in MI and facilitate novel therapy development and clinical validation. Interestingly, many MPO inhibitors affect both intracellular and extracellular MPO, but previous MPO imaging methods can only report extracellular MPO activity. In this study, we found that an MPO-specific PET imaging agent (18F-MAPP) can cross cell membranes to report intracellular MPO activity. We showed that 18F-MAPP can track the treatment effect of an MPO inhibitor (PF-2999) at different doses in experimental MI. The imaging results were corroborated by ex vivo autoradiography and gamma counting data. Furthermore, extracellular and intracellular MPO activity assays revealed that 18F-MAPP imaging can report the changes induced by PF-2999 on both intracellular and extracellular MPO activities. These findings support 18F-MAPP as a translational candidate to noninvasively report MPO activity and accelerate drug development against MPO and other related inflammatory targets.

Keywords: 18F-MAPP; MPO inhibitor; PET imaging; damaging inflammation; intracellular and extracellular MPO; myeloperoxidase; myocardial infarction.

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Myocardial Infarction* / diagnostic imaging
  • Myocardial Infarction* / drug therapy
  • Myocardial Infarction* / metabolism
  • Peroxidase* / metabolism
  • Positron-Emission Tomography


  • Peroxidase