Clinical Presentation Is Dependent on Age and Calendar Year of Diagnosis in Celiac Disease: A Hungarian Cross-Sectional Study

J Pers Med. 2023 Mar 8;13(3):487. doi: 10.3390/jpm13030487.


International trends indicate that celiac disease (CeD) is becoming more common, while the clinical presentation of CeD tends to change. We aimed to investigate factors associated with the clinical presentation of CeD. We reviewed all CeD cases diagnosed at our tertiary center, University of Pécs (Hungary), between 1992 and 2019. We collected data of verified CeD patients on clinical presentations (classified by the Oslo Classification), the age at and calendar year of diagnosis, and sex, serology and histology at diagnosis. To assess the associations of baseline variables with clinical presentations, we applied univariate and multivariate (binary logistic regression) statistics. A total of 738 CeD patients were eligible for inclusion. In the univariate analysis, patients with classical CeD were more common in the latest calendar period (p < 0.001) and tended to be older (p = 0.056), but we failed to observe a significant association between the clinical presentation and sex, serology or histology at diagnosis. In the multivariate analysis, only age at diagnosis and calendar year were independently associated with clinical presentations (OR = 1.02, CI: 1.01-1.04 and OR = 0.93, CI: 0.89-0.98, respectively). Our findings confirmed that classical CeD is independently associated with age at diagnosis and calendar year of diagnosis of CeD, whereas other parameters were not significantly associated with clinical presentations.

Keywords: calendar year; celiac disease; children and adults; clinical phenotype; clinical presentation.

Grants and funding

This research was funded by Medical School, University of Pécs, and by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office (grant FK142942 to JB).