Genetic Markers of Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Metabolites. 2023 Mar 14;13(3):427. doi: 10.3390/metabo13030427.


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by impaired insulin secretion on a background of insulin resistance (IR). IR and T2DM are associated with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). The mechanisms of IR and atherosclerosis are known to share similar genetic and environmental roots. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) detected at the earliest stages of IR might be the origin of atherosclerosis progression. ED influences the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and their encoding genes. The genes and their single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) act as potential genetic markers of IR and atherosclerosis. This review focuses on the link between IR, T2DM, atherosclerosis, CAD, and the potential genetic markers CHI3L1, CD36, LEPR, RETN, IL-18, RBP-4, and RARRES2 genes.

Keywords: atherosclerosis; coronary artery disease; endothelial dysfunction; genetic markers; insulin resistance; single nucleotide polymorphisms; type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Publication types

  • Review