Maternal Vitamin B12 Status during Pregnancy and Early Infant Neurodevelopment: The ECLIPSES Study

Nutrients. 2023 Mar 22;15(6):1529. doi: 10.3390/nu15061529.


In this prospective cohort study of 434 mother-infant pairs from the ECLIPSES study, we examine the association between maternal vitamin B12 status at the beginning and end of pregnancy and the neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants 40 days after birth in a pregnant population from a Mediterranean region of northern Spain. Maternal vitamin B12 concentrations were determined in the first and third trimesters, and sociodemographic, nutritional, and psychological data were collected. At 40 days postpartum, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III (BSID-III, cognitive, language, and motor skills) were administered to the infants and several obstetrical data were recorded. In the multivariable models, medium maternal first-trimester vitamin B12 levels (312 to 408 pg/mL, tertile 2) were associated with better neonatal performance in the motor, gross motor, language, and cognitive skills with respect to tertile 1 (<312 pg/mL). The probability of obtaining a neonatal motor, gross motor, and receptive language score >75th percentile was significantly higher also in the tertile 2 group. In summary, good maternal vitamin B12 status in the early stage of pregnancy appears to be associated with better infant motor, language, and cognitive performance at 40 days postpartum.

Keywords: ECLIPSES study; infant neurodevelopment; pregnancy; prenatal nutrition; vitamin B12 deficiency.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child Development
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Mothers
  • Pregnancy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Vitamin B 12 Deficiency*
  • Vitamin B 12*


  • Vitamin B 12