Management of orofacial granulomatosis

Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2023 Mar 2;29(3):1-16. doi: 10.12968/hmed.2022.0416. Epub 2023 Mar 29.


Orofacial granulomatosis is a chronic relapsing-remitting inflammatory condition that shares a similar phenotypic presentation to some other granulomatous diseases, particularly Crohn's disease. However, subtle clinical and pathological differences justify it as a separate disease entity. Previous studies have assessed the effectiveness of interventions used in the management of orofacial granulomatosis. This article reviews the management options available. A literature search was conducted to identify studies, in English, which assessed the effect of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions in the treatment of orofacial granulomatosis. The interventions were categorised into dietary modification, pharmacological (topical, intralesional and systemic therapy), surgery and psychological. A combination of interventions is often required to effectively manage each patient. There is convincing evidence that diet plays a role in disease severity. In patients where dietary manipulation alone is unsuccessful, topical, intralesional and/or systemic treatment may be considered to manage the condition.

Keywords: Crohn's disease; Dietary manipulation; Inflammatory bowel disease; Management challenges; Oral medicine; Orofacial granulomatosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Cutaneous
  • Crohn Disease* / drug therapy
  • Granulomatosis, Orofacial* / drug therapy
  • Granulomatosis, Orofacial* / therapy
  • Humans