Topologically associating domains in the POLLED region are the same for Angus- and Brahman-specific Hi-C reads from F1 hybrid fetal tissue

Anim Genet. 2023 Aug;54(4):536-543. doi: 10.1111/age.13322. Epub 2023 Mar 29.


Horns, a form of headgear carried by Bovidae, have ethical and economic implications for ruminant production species such as cattle and goats. Hornless (polled) individuals are preferred. In cattle, four genetic variants (Celtic, Friesian, Mongolian and Guarani) are associated with the polled phenotype, which are clustered in a 300-kb region on chromosome 1. As the variants are intergenic, the functional effect is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if the POLLED variants affect chromatin structure or disrupt enhancers using publicly available data. Topologically associating domains (TADs) were analyzed using Angus- and Brahman-specific Hi-C reads from lung tissue of an Angus (Celtic allele) cross Brahman (horned) fetus. Predicted bovine enhancers and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing peaks for histone modifications associated with enhancers (H3K27ac and H3K4me1) were mapped to the POLLED region. TADs analyzed from Angus- and Brahman-specific Hi-C reads were the same, therefore, the Celtic variant does not appear to affect this level of chromatin structure. The Celtic variant is located in a different TAD from the Friesian, Mongolian, and Guarani variants. Predicted enhancers and histone modifications overlapped with the Guarani and Friesian variants but not the Celtic or Mongolian variants. This study provides insight into the mechanisms of the POLLED variants for disrupting horn development. These results should be validated using data produced from the horn bud region of horned and polled bovine fetuses.

Keywords: Celtic; Friesian; Guarani; Mongolian; cattle; headgear; horns; polled.

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Animals
  • Cattle / genetics
  • Chromatin
  • Goats / genetics
  • Horns*
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype


  • Chromatin