ARTD-Net: Anchor-Free Based Recyclable Trash Detection Net Using Edgeless Module

Sensors (Basel). 2023 Mar 7;23(6):2907. doi: 10.3390/s23062907.

Abstract

Due to the sharp increase in household waste, its separate collection is essential in order to reduce the huge amount of household waste, since it is difficult to recycle trash without separate collection. However, since it is costly and time-consuming to separate trash manually, it is crucial to develop an automatic system for separate collection using deep learning and computer vision. In this paper, we propose two Anchor-free-based Recyclable Trash Detection Networks (ARTD-Net) which can recognize overlapped multiple wastes of different types efficiently by using edgeless modules: ARTD-Net1 and ARTD-Net2. The former is an anchor-free based one-stage deep learning model which consists of three modules: centralized feature extraction, multiscale feature extraction and prediction. The centralized feature extraction module in backbone architecture focuses on extracting features around the center of the input image to improve detection accuracy. The multiscale feature extraction module provides feature maps of different scales through bottom-up and top-down pathways. The prediction module improves classification accuracy of multiple objects based on edge weights adjustments for each instance. The latter is an anchor-free based multi-stage deep learning model which can efficiently finds each of waste regions by additionally exploiting region proposal network and RoIAlign. It sequentially performs classification and regression to improve accuracy. Therefore, ARTD-Net2 is more accurate than ARTD-Net1, while ARTD-Net1 is faster than ARTD-Net2. We shall show that our proposed ARTD-Net1 and ARTD-Net2 methods achieve competitive performance in mean average precision and F1 score compared to other deep learning models. The existing datasets have several problems that do not deal with the important class of wastes produced commonly in the real world, and they also do not consider the complex arrangement of multiple wastes with different types. Moreover, most of the existing datasets have an insufficient number of images with low resolution. We shall present a new recyclables dataset which is composed of a large number of high-resolution waste images with additional essential classes. We shall show that waste detection performance is improved by providing various images with the complex arrangement of overlapped multiple wastes with different types.

Keywords: deep neural networks; object detection; recyclable waste dataset; waste management.

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.